The Zouave regiments of both North and South during the War Between the States are depicted in many paintings and pictures. The name and  uniforms were  North African-inspired. There were about 70 volunteer Zouave regiments in the Union army and about 25 in the Confederate army during the war.

I read this in the American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War, Volume I: “One company of exotic Zouaves, patterned after the famous French fighting forces, thrilled the public with elaborate drills, but when these warriors went into battle they learned the hard way that their bizarre uniforms were not suited to combat”.

The Zouave uniforms were sometimes quite elaborate. Some wore a fez with colored tassel, and turban, short fitting jacket, wide baggy red pantaloons and white leggings. The jackets were cooler than the usual wool ones worn by most of the armies.

Winslow Homer did an 1864 oil painting of two 5th New York Zouaves titled The Brierwood Pipe,  and of course Mathew Brady took photos of them!